June 13th, 2011
It’s been a while since I’ve written about medicalisation. Which seems as good an excuse as any to revisit this issue and reflect on some of the developments in this area in healthcare, therapy and media.
A few months ago I took part in the 41st Maudsley Debate entitled ‘Love is a Drug’. Ben Goldacre and I spoke for the motion, Sandy Goldbeck-Wood and John Dean against it.
In fairness the title of the debate ‘This house believes that female sexual arousal disorder is a fabrication’ was somewhat misleading since it could be construed as saying there was no such thing as women having problems with desire and arousal. Obviously that’s a ridiculous idea for anyone to support, so Ben and I kept our focus more on the way female sexual problems have been medicalised, and what implications this can have (particularly in healthcare).
You can hear the debate and subsequent discussion here. Ben and I won the debate, although the discussion certainly indicated this is a complex area and one that is not always fully understood in terms of gender, politics and ‘bad science’. I think Ben’s points about teaching medical students (and healthcare staff more widely) to read and think critically about pharmaceutical research is important – particularly in relation to the area of sexual functioning which is heavily medicalised but often not taken seriously. Because it’s about sex.
This event follows a debate last year hosted by the British Medical Association which was also attended by John and Sandy, who discussed issues around female sexual dysfunction with Ray Moynihan (author of Sex, Lies and Pharmaceuticals) and Iona Heath.
Both of these discussions were focused towards a medical audience (with the Maudsley debate particularly aimed at medical students and trainee psychiatrists, and the BMA event at practising clinicians and therapists). While the Maudsley debate was open to the public the BMA event was invitation only, so there is a remaining problem of making discussions around medicalisation open to a wider audience.
One way this is being achieved is through screenings of Liz Canner’s amazing documentary ‘Orgasm Inc’ which have been taking place across the US, Canada and UK. Media coverage of this movie has also helped raise the profile of female sexual problems (examples here, here, here and here). Although unfortunately not all journalists covering this area ‘get’ all the issues surrounding this topic, particularly around medicalisation, evidence based practice, and endorsing largely untrialled/untested interventions).
This leaves us with some stubborn problems which still need tackling. These include:
Critiquing FSD = women don’t have problems
One of the most frustrating aspects of challenging the medicalisation of female sexual problems is the inevitable response from some journalists, medics, researchers and members of the public who interpret what you are actually saying as – ‘women don’t have sexual problems’. Clearly women who are experiencing sexual difficulties don’t want to be told they’re inventing their problems, and do want a solution. Those who are challenging medicalisation of sexual function are not saying women don’t have problems. They’re not saying sex isn’t important. What they are saying is that there are many reasons women experience problems, and an equal number of possible solutions to them (see here for more on this). And that it are the many causes and solutions that require exploring rather than assuming a woman who isn’t desiring sex is ill and requires a clinical solution (we unpack this to some degree in the Maudsley debate podcast linked above).
Discussing women’s problems = denying men have problems
Another real problem around talking about this topic is the focus on women. The media ignored the medicalisation of sex for a long while. Then did a lot to write and broadcast in ways that promoted pharmaceutical company agendas. Some media outlets have more recently decided to focus on the medicalisation problem, but generally in terms of focusing on women. This can partly be attributed to activism in this area, and partly due to rehearsing comfortable stereotypes – that women are not particularly sexual or are more likely to have problems with sex. This has led to criticisms that men’s sexual functioning has been ignored, or is not an issue. In terms of research that’s not really true. The challenging of medicalisation of male sexuality came before campaigns against the medicalisation of female sexual functioning. You can read some examples of that work here, here and here (It’s an area I’ve also researched and published on, as well as given advice to men about e.g. here and here).
What may be a more accurate statement is there is concern over men’s sexual functioning and the medicalisation of men’s sexual lives, but a lack of interest in the mainstream media in really taking this up. Other activist and sceptic groups you’d expect to challenge this problem seem reluctant. Witness the general apathy to helping men affected by the actions of the Advanced Medical Institute as a prime example. It is difficult to get journalists to focus on this in terms of medicalisation of sexual functioning per se, rather than simply seeing it as a ‘woman’s issue’.
Media lack of awareness of/complicity in this area
One of the main issues in this area is the media often doesn’t ‘get’ medicalisation. Indeed promises of wonder drugs that will boost our sex lives attract editors like moths to flames. The result has been uncritical pickup of pharmaceutical research on psychosexual problems, either promoting products that aren’t all that effective, or showcasing drugs that aren’t even available for public use. Even where drugs for desire problems have been identified as ineffective media coverage continues to write about them as if they are – for example with media’s ongoing obsession with testosterone therapy as a sex drive booster for women. This parallels problems within medicine where practitioners simply don’t understand the influence of Big Pharma in this area, can’t access (or understand) the diverse literature about medicalisation and critical sexology, and remain unable to identify and appraise literature on this topic.
Where to next?
The problem of medicalisation and poor media coverage of sexual problems is not going away. So encouraging and recognising good quality reporting in this area is vital. Supporting screenings and discussions of documentaries like Orgasm Inc can help, as can more public events tackling this topic. Moving away from a debate style format (i.e. do problems exist or not) would also allow for perhaps a more nuanced discussion on medicalisation, how it happens, and how to recognise and respond to it. Focusing on this as an issue affecting cis and trans women and men, as well as different sexualities is important. As is reflecting on how we view psychosexual issues for different age groups (and what age groups, genders, sexualities do we seem most keen to pathologize). Helping medics, therapists, journalists and the public to understand core issues around medicalisation as well as critiquing research on treatments in this area would also be useful. As would challenging any suggestion that critiquing medicalisation equals denying people have psychosexual problems.
You may also be interested in responding to the classifications of psychosexual issues in the revised DSM (deadline 15 June), or learning more about the Medicalisation of Sex from this recent conference in Vancouver.Tweet